An Introduction to Industrial pH Measurement

An Introduction to Industrial pH Measurement

What is pH? pH, which is the measurement of hydrogen ion concentration, describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH measurement as well as pH control is a critical factor in a wide range of industrial applications – including pharmaceutical manufacturing, food and beverage production, dairy and agriculture, water treatment applications, and countless others.

pH control is often vital in ensuring the quality of a product...


What is a mass flow meter and how does it work?

What is a mass flow meter and how does it work?

A thermal mass flow meter measures the flow rate of gas mass based on the convective heat transfer of a heated surface to the flowing fluid. The components of a basic thermal mass flow meter include two temperature sensors with an electric heater between them. The heater can protrude into the fluid stream or can be external to the pipe.

In the past, mass flow was often calculated from the outputs of a volumetric flow meter and a densitometer. Density was either directly measured, or was calculated using the outputs of process temperature and pressure transmitters...


What is a Signal Conditioner?

What is a Signal Conditioner?

A signal conditioner is a device that converts one type of electronic signal into a another type of signal. Its primary use is to convert a signal that may be difficult to read by conventional instrumentation into a more easily read format. In performing this conversion a number of functions may take place.

Signal conditioning is a vital process performed within the Data Acquisition System. It involves the manipulation of the analog signal output from the sensors to prepare it for the next stage of processing. Signal conditioning amplifies and converts the signals from the sensors or...


RTD vs Thermocouple

RTD vs Thermocouple

It is not practical to compare RTDs and thermocouples generally. However, if we compare their performance in terms of specific criteria, we can see which is best suited for specific applications. Thermocouples are best for working at high temperatures. New manufacturing techniques have improved the measurement range of RTD probes, but more than 90% of RTDs are designed for temperatures below 400°C.

In contrast, some thermocouples can be used at up to 2500°C. Thermocouples are generally cheaper than RTDs...


What Are Common Applications for Thermocouples?

What Are Common Applications for Thermocouples?

Thermocouples are the most widely used temperature sensors on the planet due to their combination of wide temperature capabilities, ruggedness, and low cost. Thermocouples are used in applications that range from home appliances to industrial processes, to electric power generation, to furnace monitoring and control, to food and beverage processing, to automotive sensors, to aircraft engines, to rockets, satellites and spacecraft.

When it comes to high temperatures, small size, fast response, high vibration or shock, most times you will find thermocouples providing the temperature measurements.


What are Infrared Temperature Sensors?

What are Infrared Temperature Sensors?

An infrared thermometer is a sensor that consists of a lens to focus the infrared (IR) energy on to a detector, which converts the energy to an electrical signal that can be displayed in units of temperature after being compensated for ambient temperature variation. This configuration facilitates temperature measurement from a distance without contact with the object to be measured (non-contact temperature measurement).

As such, the infrared thermometer is useful for measuring temperature under circumstances where thermocouples or other probe type sensors cannot be used or do not produce accurate data for a variety of reasons...


What is a Type K Thermocouple?

What is a Type K Thermocouple?


Pressure Transducers and Transmitters

Pressure Transducers and Transmitters

A pressure transducer, often called a pressure transmitter, is a sensor that converts pressure into an analog electrical signal. Although there are various types of transducers, one of the most common is the strain-gage wheatstone bridge pressure transducer.

The conversion of pressure into an electrical signal is achieved by the physical deformation of strain gages which are bonded into the diaphragm of the pressure transducer and wired into a wheatstone bridge configuration. Pressure applied to the transducer produces a deflection of the diaphragm which introduces strain to the gages. The strain will produce an electrical resistance change proportional to the pressure...


Thermocouple Wire - How it Works?

Thermocouple Wire - How it Works?

The thermocouple wire or cable is used to manufacture thermocouple probes in order to sense temperature using the point of cold junction compensation (cjc end). On the other side, as it has been explain in this other article, a thermocouple is a sensor for measuring temperature, that consists of two dissimilar metals that are joined together at the sensing end.

Different thermocouple types (e.g. J or K type thermocouple wire) use different mixtures of metals in the cable. At the cjc end, the millivolt value provided by the thermocouple represents the difference in temperature of the sensing end as compared to the cjc end (also called the reference end)...


How is Temperature Measured?

How is Temperature Measured?

Temperature can be measured via a diverse array of sensors. All of them infer temperature by sensing some change in a physical characteristic. Six types with which the engineer is likely to come into contact are: thermocouples, resistive temperature devices (RTDs and thermistors), infrared radiators, bimetallic devices, liquid expansion devices, and change-of-state devices.

Choose the right temperature measurement instrument for your application...

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